Monday, May 25, 2020

Torture and Terrorism in the Modern World

Torture is the act of inflicting severe pain to force someone to do or say something. It has been used against prisoners-of-war, suspected insurgents, and political prisoners for hundreds of years. In the 1970s and 1980s, governments began to identify a specific form of violence called terrorism and to identify prisoners as terrorists. This is when the history of torture and terrorism begins. While many countries practice torture against political prisoners, only some name their dissidents terrorists or face potential threats from terrorism. Torture and Terrorism Around the World Governments have used systematic torture in conflicts with rebel, insurgent, or resistance groups in long-running conflicts since the 1980s. It is questionable whether these should always be called terrorism conflicts. Governments are likely to call their non-state violent opponents terrorists, but only sometimes are they clearly engaged in terrorist activity. Examples of torture used by governments around the world include the Israeli Supreme Courts License to Torture ruling, Russias use of torture techniques in the Chechnya war, and Egypts torture of both domestic and foreign terrorists. Interrogation Practices Considered to be Torture The issue of torture in relation to terrorism was raised publicly in the United States in 2004 when news of a 2002 Memorandum issued by the Justice Department for the CIA suggested that torturing Al Qaeda and Taliban detainees captured in Afghanistan might be justified to prevent further attacks on the U.S. A subsequent memo, requested by former Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld in 2003, similarly justified torture on detainees held at the Guantanamo Bay detention center. The UN has a clear definition of torture, as determined by a General Assembly resolution that dates to 1984. A scandal erupted in the U.S. media in 2004 when photos from the Abu Ghraib prison surfaced, proving that the American military has been engaged in some practices that break with this resolution.  It has since been proven that America uses several specific torture techniques when questioning prisoners. It was reported by The New Yorker that these techniques turned deadly at least once at the Abu Ghraib prison. Legislation Since 9/11 In the years immediately preceding the 9/11 attacks, there was no question that torture as an interrogation practice is out-of-bounds for American military personnel. In 1994, the United States passed a law prohibiting the use of torture by the American military under any circumstances. Furthermore, as a signatory, the U.S. was bound to comply with the 1949 Geneva Convention. This specifically prohibits torturing prisoners-of-war. After 9/11 and the beginning of a Global War on Terror, the Department of Justice, Department of Defense, and other offices of the Bush Administration issued a number of reports on whether aggressive detainee interrogation practices and suspending Geneva Conventions is legitimate in the current context. These documents include the 2002 Justice Departments torture memo, the 2003 Defense Department Working Group Report, and the 2006 Military Commissions Act. International Conventions Against Torture Despite ongoing debates about whether torture is justified against terrorism suspects, the world community finds torture repugnant under any circumstances. Its not a coincidence that the first of the declarations below appeared in 1948, just after the end of the Second World War. The revelation of Nazi torture and science experiments performed on German citizens in World War II produced a global abhorrence of torture conducted by any party  Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã‚  but especially sovereign states. International Conventions Against Torture1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights1948 European Convention on Human Rights1955 Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights1969 American Convention on Human Rights1975 World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo1975 Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Torture1984 Convention Against Torture Sources Bybee, Jay S., Assistant Attorney General. Memorandum for Alberto R. Gonzales Counsel to the President. Standards of Conduct for Interrogation under 18 U.S.C. 2340-2340A, Office of Legal Counsel, U.S. Department of Justice, The National Security Archive, The George Washington University, August 1, 2002, Washington, D.C. Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Office of the High Commissioner, United Nations Human Rights, OHCHR, December 10, 1984. Mayer, Jane. A Deadly Interrogation. The New Yorker, November 6, 2005. UN expert alarmed at Israeli Supreme Courts license to torture ruling. Office of the High Commissioner, United Nations Human Rights,  OHCHR, February 20, 2018. Wines, Michael. Chechens Tell of Torture in Russian Camp. The New York Times, February 18, 2000.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Compare And Contrast Farewell Address - 1951 Words

Fifty-four men make up an elite club of those who have been the President of the United States of America. With the bad and good, liberal or conservative, old or young; these men have shaped the creation of these United States and to a further extent, played a vital role in building the world we know today. Our Presidents have welded enormous responsibility and power as they faced the problems of the nation and world as a whole. One of the most influential and effective tools of the president is when they address the nation and world. Presidential speeches have affected markets, changed nations perspectives and redirected the efforts of 320 million Americans with the utterance of just a couple lines. Among the many speeches given by†¦show more content†¦Eisenhower entered office eight years after the conclusion of the Second World War just as the United States was beginning to assert itself as the world’s most powerful nation post-war. Eisenhower faced diplomatic and militaristic threats and concerns with the continued rise of the rival Soviet Union. He declared a new status towards Nuclear weapons for the country with his â€Å"New Look† policy and was involved with many international communications and covert options. NASA was created under his orders and signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957 defending the Little Rock, Arkansas disputes. As the formative President of the United States, George Washington faced a unique challenge in the departure of his office. Just as he had spent his entire presidency setting precedents for future leaders, his actions at the very tail end of his public service would play an essential role in leading us as a nation forward. Washington was forced to consider the implications of his departure on term limits, the role of the United States in the international community, and the continual building of strength in the American democratic system. The United States is still, at this time, in the budding stages of a new democracy. As the nation had done previously, the people continued to look at the father of our nation and first president for guidance. Washington also knew that theShow MoreRelatedTo An Athlete Dying Young, by A.E. Houseman and Crossing The Bar, by Lord Alfred Tennyson1101 Words   |  5 Pagesof the laurel describes the athlete’s courage. In Greek mythology, the strongest warriors were given a wreath made of the laurel plant which is a symbol of victory and courage. Houseman uses the laurel to signify the young athlete’s victories and compares him to an Olympians, who were the mightiest of warriors. But then he contradicts himself by saying that the laurel will not last forever, and it will wither faster than the rose which is known to have a life span of over hundreds of years. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Film Gattaca Is Genetic Discrimination - 1584 Words

A theme in The film Gattaca is genetic discrimination. In the aseptic society Vincent lives in , life is genetically restrained even before the individual is born so that each person gets the â€Å"best possible start†. The sterile environment captures a strictly controlled ambience favouring genetic perfection above anything else. It is a society that overpowers human desire and human relationships. This becomes apparent through the mechanical robotic characters that live in Gattaca. Traits such as personality, beliefs, values and morals are useless. Identity in gattaca is seen in solely defined by one s individual status as a valid or invalid. Other than this nothing else is relevant.The starting scenes in the film sets an atmosphere of controlled physical excellence. Vincent is shown shaving and exfoliating his skin.Vincent gathers a stray hair d from his keyboard and the space director acknowledges his admirable cleaning habits, To which Vincent believes is â€Å" next to godliness†. There are extreme close-ups of human matter used in Gattaca to show how the environment in which Vincent lives emphasises the importance of DNA. Those who are considered perfect among the society are often set back by a lack of aspiration; this idea of perfection comes from one s individual values influenced by a corrupt society.Vincent is considered a god child due to having no genetic advantage from birth, Vincent is an alien concept to the genetically modified world. A test such as aShow MoreRelatedEssay1073 Words   |  5 Pagesconclusion of the film provides the only hope in an otherwise bleak world. Discuss with specific references to elements of film. The film Gattaca is a dystopian film directed by Andrew Niccol which is released in 1997. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Othello and King Lear A comparison Essay Example For Students

Othello and King Lear: A comparison Essay If Shakespeare was alive today it is certain that there would be a lotwritten about him. We would read reviews of his new plays in newspapers,articles about his poetry in the literary papers, and gossip about his love lifeand his taste in clothes splashed across the glossy magazines. His views abouteverything under the sun, from the government to kitchen furniture, wouldprobably appear regularly in the colour supplements. His face would be familiaron television talk shows, his voice well-known from radio broadcasts. Therewould be so much recorded evidence about his life and his opinions that it wouldnot be hard to write about him. Shakespeare, however, lived some four hundred years ago in the reign ofQueen Elizabeth I, when there was no tele-vision or radio, nor even anynewspapers as we know them today. Although he was respected as an importantperson in his own lifetime, nobody ever thought of writing about him until wellafter his death. And Shakespeare did apparently not believe in keeping a diaryeither. So it is largely by luck that the little evidence we have, such as theentry of his birth in the parish register, has survived at all. And yet, by looking carefully at contemporary pictures, by readingcontemporary accounts, it is possible to get a good idea of how the boy whosebirth is recorded in the Stratford register of 1654 grew up into the man whowrote such famous plays still known all over the world, as we type. English

Monday, March 9, 2020

Tips on Writing a Patent Application Abstract

Tips on Writing a Patent Application Abstract The abstract is part of a written patent application. It’s a short summary of your invention, no more than a paragraph, and it appears at the beginning of the application. Think of it as a condensed version of your patent where you can abstract – or take out and focus on – the essence of your invention.   Here are the basic rules for  an abstract from the United States Patent and Trademark Office, Law MPEP 608.01(b), Abstract of the Disclosure: A brief abstract of the technical disclosure in the specification must commence on a separate sheet, preferably following the claims, under the heading Abstract or Abstract of the Disclosure. The abstract in an application filed under 35 U.S.C. 111 may not exceed 150 words in length. The purpose of the abstract is to enable the United States Patent and Trademark Office and the public generally to determine quickly from a cursory inspection the nature and gist of the technical disclosure. Why Is an Abstract Necessary?   Abstracts are used primarily for searching patents. They should be written in a way that makes the invention easily understood by anyone with a background in the field. The reader should be able to quickly get a sense of the nature of the invention so he can decide whether he wants to read the rest of the patent application.   The abstract describes your invention. It says how it can be used, but it does not discuss the scope of your claims, which are  the legal reasons why your idea should be protected by a patent protected, providing it with a legal shield that prevents it from being stolen by others.   Writing Your Abstract Give the page a title, such as Abstract or Abstract of the Specification if you’re applying to the Canadian Intellectual Property Office. Use Abstract of the Disclosure if you’re applying to the United States Patent and Trademark Office.   Explain what your invention is and  tell the reader what it will be used for. Describe the main components of your invention and how they work. Don’t refer to any claims, drawings or other elements that are included in your application. Your abstract is intended to be read on its own so your reader won’t understand any references you make to other parts of your application.   Your abstract  must be 150 words or less. It may take you a couple of tries to fit your summary into this limited space. Read it over a few times to eliminate unnecessary words and jargon. Try to avoid removing articles such as â€Å"a,† â€Å"an† or â€Å"the† because this can make the abstract difficult to read. This information comes from the Canadian Intellectual Property Office or CIPO. The tips would also be helpful for patent applications to the USPTO or World Intellectual Property Organization.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Performance Management and Organizational Goals Research Paper

Performance Management and Organizational Goals - Research Paper Example It is important to understand that efforts imparted at every level of the organization need to be in accordance with the goals and values of the organization. Clarity in communicating organizational goals makes it possible for the employees to understand what is expected of them ultimately making their efforts more focused and directed. however, organizations need to support the employees in developing skills and expertise through training activities, setting SMART goals, creating a strong organizational culture, giving them ownership of their work and providing them with adequate tools and equipment to perform well. Thus the relationship between performance management and fulfillment of organizational goals is a direct one which implicates that higher performance management activities are bound to fulfill more organizational goals. There are several drivers to hone employee performance for example technology, strategy, industrial relations, organizational restructuring, change and risk management, management implications etc. for my organization that consists of an apparel manufacturing business, technology ranks the highest amongst these drivers. This is because like every manufacturing business, the end result that is desired I that of production efficiency. By employing the latest technology and imparting adequate raining regarding its use, employees are bound to perform better at work. Workplace satisfaction may also be affected subsequently as the employees feel they are being provided with valuable training that helps them develop their skill set (Gray, 2011). As far as the organizational goals are concerned, it is important to align each sub-goal with the overall strategy. For example, the apparel manufacturing facility selected for this case aims at becoming a recognized name in the local market for the production of baby clothes. For this purpose, the marketing activities need to be directed towards projecting the brand as